28 February 2015

Consumer Data Privacy Protection Bill Proposed By Obama Administration Said To Add Little Or Even To Diminish Existing Consumer Protection Laws

       Saturday, 28 February 2015, WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Ninth Amendment submitted the below comment to the New York Times in response to the below linked article which comment has been published in today's New York Times digital edition.


 waronnothing 9 hours ago

The editorial board of the Ninth Amendment at www.waronnothing.blogspot.com finds it most unfortunate that the Obama Administration despite President Obama's campaign promises to the contrary having firmly established a horrific record of greatly extending and expanding the NSA and other Executive Branch agencies' gross abuses of all Americans' privacy and other rights by among other things universal surveillance and data mining largely begun under the Bush administration should extend those broken promises to consumer privacy rights proposing such abysmal apparently toothless or even counter-productive legislation apparently immediately criticized by nearly all notable consumer rights groups. It is most unfortunate that President Obama appears bound to leave such a sorry legacy in the vital area of Americans' privacy and related Constitutional rights in an era when the sustained attacks against these rights by the Government and corporations domestically threaten the very survival of the core fabric of the Constitution and thus further diminish the chances of the very survival of the United States as it has become so distracted sacrificing such essential liberties to protect itself from "national security" threats claimed not only from abroad but increasingly allegedly from within.


Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

26 February 2015

Net Neutrality Major Victory For Free Speech As F.C.C. Democratic Majority Votes To Regulate Broadband High-Speed Internet Service As A Public Utility

Tom Wheeler, chairman of the F.C.C., with two fellow commissioners, Mignon Clyburn, left, and Jessica Rosenworcel, right, during an open hearing on Thursday ahead of a vote on net neutrality. Credit
Mark Wilson/Getty Images
       Thursday, 26 February 2015, WASHINGTON, D.C. - In what is being heralded as a huge victory for net neutrality and the preservation of an open Internet with even the unusual urging of President Obama and the voices of millions of Americans deluging Washington, D.C. the F.C.C. today voted 3-2 along party lines to reclassify high-speed Internet service as a telecommunications rather than an information service under Title II of the Telecommunications Act which therefore means it is treated as a public utility.
       The F.C.C. net neutrality rules expected to be available within a couple of days but not effective for a couple of months in addition to regulating wired lines also will encompass mobile data service for smartphones and tablets. The rules further will include provisions for the protection of consumer privacy as well as ensuring internet service for people with disabilities and in remote areas.
       The new rules will not adopt Title II provisions wholesale but will leave companies to make their own pricing and engineering network management decisions. Nevertheless the rules will pre-empt state laws that limit the buildout of municipal broadband Internet services focusing today on North Carolina and Tennessee although expected to establish a framework for all states including a total of 21 states that the F.C.C. counts currently as having laws limiting the activities of community broadband services.
       The latter has been an area of particular emphasis by President Obama even sitting on his desk demonstrating on his tablet the result of foresight by a few smaller American municipalities that started the buildout of their own broadband internet early on and whose citizens now enjoy internet speeds of about 100 times that of most major American cities. Perhaps ironically of the major cities shown by the President in a bar graph San Francisco fell by far in last place with the slowest internet speed.
       In President Obama's unusual public input into the F.C.C.'s independent decision the President also overall urged the "strongest possible rules" for net neutrality specifically urging the Commission to reclassify high-speed broadband Internet service as a utility as "[f]or most Americans, the internet has become an essential part of everyday communication and everyday life," according to today's New York Times article linked to below.
       The F.C.C. net neutrality decision today resulted from the votes in favor by the three Democrats on the Commission being Chairman Tom Wheeler and fellow commissioners Mignon Clyburn and Jessica Rosenworcel. Chairman Wheeler said the F.C.C. was doing everything in its power to protect innovators and consumers and preserve the Internet as a "core of free expression and democratic principles." The remaining two Republican commissioners Ajit Pai and Michael O'Rielly delivered a "scathing critique" of today's F.C.C. decision as overly broad, vague and unnecessary.


Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved (no claim to Mark Wilson / Getty Images photo)

Net Neutrality Expected To Win F.C.C. Approval To Regulate Internet As A Public Utility With No "Fast Lanes" For The Rich In "Perhaps The Biggest Policy Shift Since The Internet Became A Reality" As "Avalanche Of Public Support . . . Swamps Washington" And "Republicans Concede To Obama"

       Thursday, 26 February 2015, WASHINGTON, D.C. - In what is being seen as perhaps the biggest policy turnaround since the inception of the Internet with likely far-reaching consequences in preserving an "open" Internet for "the public good" the five-member Federal Communications Commission (F.C.C.) today is expected to line up a majority of its two Democratic Commissioners behind the proposal of its Democratic Chair Tom Wheeler (appointed by President Obama) to preserve "net neutrality" by regulating the Internet as a public utility with no "fast lanes" for the rich and also stopping intentional slowdowns by broadband companies, also known as "throttling", of Internet content providers' net traffic if they refuse to "pay up" to the broadband giants. The proposal also includes F.C.C. authority to intervene directly should any of the handful of wireless and broadband giants discussed below seek somehow to interfere with implementation of the proposal's prohibitions against "fast lanes" and "throttling".
       The original F.C.C. proposal, promulgated with little or no public comment but rather heavy pressure from the National Cable & Telecommunications Association said to be the second most powerful corporate lobby in D.C. with an "army of lobbyists" funded by the small handful of cable and telecommunications giants dominating wireless and including the three -- Comcast, Verizon Communications and Time Warner Cable --which dominate broadband, would have permitted the establishment of "fast lanes" for the rich and sluggish service for the general public as demonstrated graphically by President Obama sitting on his desk lamenting the endless spinning circle of doom on the tablet he held while singing the praises of municipal broadband at fair and reasonable prices for all Americans racing at over one hundred times the speed of present commercial internet service of much of the nation's population.
       The resultant public outcry overwhelmed Washington with President Obama reporting over four million comments against the original proposal as an opposing group of small and medium internet content providers and other activist groups helped facilitate the above-mentioned avalanche of passionate and engaged Internet users and consumers besieging the F.C.C. and elected officials for months. This then came to the point last October as described in the New York Times article linked to below of activist tech group Fight for the Future acquiring the direct telephone numbers of about 30 F.C.C. officials circumventing switchboards which resulted in the officials receiving about 55,000 direct phone calls from the public in about six weeks before the group "turned off the spigot".
       Congressional Republicans' opposition to net neutrality meanwhile reportedly has faded in the face of the public onslaught leading to the concession of Republican leaders earlier this week to Obama and Democrats now lining up behind him supported by a very vocal public that they no longer wished to take independent Congressional action. As recently voiced by Senator John Thune, Republican of South Dakota, Republicans did not wish to proceed legislatively without bipartisan support and now reputedly also favor the same things, no fast lanes and no "throttling", that are contained in F.C.C. Chair Tom Wheeler's proposal to be voted on today. Therefore today's only public Republican opposition to the proposal apparently is widely expected to be two votes against net neutrality by the F.C.C.'s two Republican Commissioners.
       For interested readers a second New York Times article published today of technology news analysis entitled "The Push for Net Neutrality Arose From Lack of Choice" also is linked to beneath the above-referenced article linked to directly below.



Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

25 February 2015

Friendly N.S.A. Director Admiral Michael "Mike" Rogers (Pictured Below) And Yahoo Senior Executive Have Cordial Disagreement Over Cyber-Spying At New America Washington, D.C. Cyber-Security Conference Signature Event

       Wednesday, 25 February 2015, Washington, D.C. - N.S.A. Director Admiral Michael "Mike" Rogers
shows his true colors (and fangs) at Monday's Washington, D.C. New America cyber-
security conference at suggestion that the N.S.A. is not above the United States
Constitution but actually might have to at least pass the "laugh test" pretending that it
makes "best efforts" to follow it at least generally speaking as the out-of-control 
N.S.A. makes demands to further expand its fanatical universal illegal domestic
spying on all United States citizens to encompass all encrypted transmissions including
of ordinary American consumers. Mr. Rogers is joined in his deranged sentiment of
entitlement to ignore completely fundamental rights of Americans by F.B.I. Director
James Comey and United States Attorney General Eric J. Holder all of whom
apparently are "back door men" when it comes to speaking in code (or "The Switch"
as the Washington Post calls it). The Ninth Amendment editorial board passes on the
below Washington Post article without comment other than Mssrs. Rogers and Comey
should already by in prison for a history of atrocious unconstitutional civil rights
surveillance and domestic spying violations as should Mr. Holder
for not prosecuting them (not to mention George W. Bush Administration and C.I.A.
officials guilty of similar crimes as well as for crimes against humanity for conspiracy
to torture C.I.A. never charged nor convicted "detainees"). Just sayin'. . . .  

Here’s how the clash between the NSA Director and a senior Yahoo executive went down.

 February 23  

In an unusual public exchange, the director of the National Security Agency and a senior Yahoo executive clashed over cyber-spying Monday, illustrating the growing chasm between Washington and Silicon Valley over whether intelligence officials should have broad access to the products being developed by the nation's top technology firms.
For a normally staid Washington cyber-security conference, this one hosted by New America, the tense back-and-forth had the packed audience of executives, senior policy makers, bureaucrats and journalists buzzing.
Speaking at the signature event of the conference, NSA Director Adm. Mike Rogers called for a "legal framework" that would enable law enforcement and anti-terrorism officials to tap into encrypted data flowing between ordinary consumers -- echoing a stance laid out by other administration officials, including FBI Director James Comey and Attorney General Eric J. Holder. But technology executives as well as many cybersecurity experts argue there is no way to build in such "backdoors" without fundamentally undermining the security that protects online communications around the world. In response to recent revelations about government snooping, firms such as Apple and Google have designed their latest mobile software to make it impossible for the companies to turn over data from smartphones and tablet computers to police -- even when authorities have a search warrant.
Roger's remarks were later challenged by Alex Stamos, Yahoo's chief information security officer, during a question-and-answer session.
"So it sounds like you agree with Director Comey that we should be building defects into the encryption in our products so that the US government can decrypt…" Stamos began. (These remarks were verified by a transcript provided by the Web site Just Security.)
"That would be your characterization," Rogers said, interrupting him.
"No, I think... all of the best public cryptographers in the world would agree that you can’t really build backdoors in crypto," Stamos replied. "That it’s like drilling a hole in the windshield."
"I’ve got a lot of world-class cryptographers at the National Security Agency," Rogers said.
"I’ve talked to some of those folks and some of them agree too, but…" Stamos said.
"Oh, we agree that we don’t accept each others’ premise," Rogers replied, interrupting again, as laughter erupted across the audience.
"If we’re going to build defects/backdoors or golden master keys for the U.S. government, do you believe we should do so — we have about 1.3 billion users around the world — should we do for the Chinese government, the Russian government, the Saudi Arabian government, the Israeli government, the French government?" Stamos asked.
"So, I’m not gonna… I mean, the way you framed the question isn’t designed to elicit a response," Rogers replied.
"Well, do you believe we should build backdoors for other countries?" Stamos asked again.
"My position is — hey look, I think that we’re lying that this isn’t technically feasible. Now, it needs to be done within a framework. I’m the first to acknowledge that. You don’t want the FBI and you don’t want the NSA unilaterally deciding, so, what are we going to access and what are we not going to access? That shouldn’t be for us. I just believe that this is achievable. We’ll have to work our way through it. And I’m the first to acknowledge there are international implications. I think we can work our way through this," Rogers answered.
"So you do believe then, that we should build those for other countries if they pass laws?" Stamos asked a third time.
"I think we can work our way through this," Rogers replied.
"I’m sure the Chinese and Russians are going to have the same opinion," Stamos said.
"I said I think we can work through this," Rogers said.
Rogers, in his initial remarks, was also critical of former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, saying his disclosures revealed NSA surveillance tactics to terrorists.
“It has had a material impact on our ability to generate insights as to what terrorist groups around the world are doing,” he said.
For his part, Snowden, who has been in the limelight this week after a film documenting his efforts won an Academy Award, wrote Monday that he regretted not leaking his trove of secret documents earlier.
“Had I come forward a little sooner, these programs would have been a little less entrenched," Snowden wrote on the Web site Reddit. "And those abusing them would have felt a little less familiar with and accustomed to the exercise of those powers."
Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved (no claim to W. P. content)

24 February 2015

BREAKING NEWS: President Obama Vetoes Keystone XL Pipeline Bill

       Tuesday, 24 February 2015, WASHINGTON, D.C - President Obama this afternoon vetoed the Keystone XL pipeline bill forced through by a Republican-controlled Congress before the completion of regulatory and environmental reviews many of which Republicans have been bought off by TransCanada Corporation a Canadian company specializing in dirty "tar sands" oil seeking to construct a heavy petroleum pipeline that would cut a gash nearly 1,200 miles from across the Canadian border right down the middle of the United States to the Gulf Coast where pipeline oil would be sold on world markets. John "He Da Bones" Boehner went apoplectic as expected vowing apparently to bring the bill back again and again like a walking dead zombie so that President Obama presumably can veto it over and over. President Obama meanwhile retains the authority to approve the bill at any time in the future. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the New York Times article which appeared about an hour ago and is linked to below.

Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

23 February 2015

WARNING: Battery Power Data Alone Used To Track Android Phone Users By "Malicious" App Requiring No Access To GPS Nor Other Location Provider Such As Cellular Or WiFi Network But Only Power Data Of Unwary "Victims"

       Monday, 23 February 2015, PALO ALTO, CA - A team of three researchers from the Stanford University Computer Science Department along with a colleague from Rafael Ltd. have written a paper describing their creation of what they call a "malicious" app which can track the location of an android phone user using only battery power consumption data which varies with distance and obstacles between the android phone and a cellular tower while discounting all other unneeded consumption information "noise" with an algorithm that through "machine learning" takes into account power uses such as conversations and listening to music or using social media and eliminates them from the location equation (the "Paper") BBC Technology News reports.
       "The "malicious" app has neither permission to access the GPS nor other location providers (eg cellular or wifi network) the team reportedly wrote in the Paper to which a link is provided in the BBC Technology News article linked to below for readers interested in more information. The malicious person locator app requires only permission for network connectivity and access to the power data which the team reports are so commonly requested for apps as not to arouse suspicion of "victims" be they of criminal government spy organizations such as just for example the NSA, CIA, and GCHQ, presumably as well as ordinary civilian criminals, stalkers, law enforcement and all manner of privacy invaders and persons posing threats to personal safety.
       The team reports that the above are "very common permissions" for example currently requested by 179 apps available on Android app store Google Play. A cyber security expert notes that with smartphones so "stuffed with sensors" that users often already forget about others being able to track them and that with this latest discovery that merely power data can be used also to track these unwary android phone users that "[w]e are approaching the point where the only safe way to use your phone is to pull the battery out - and not all phones let you do that". As mentioned above interested readers will find the direct link to the full BBC Technology News article below which article in its body provides a link to the research team's Paper and after the article's conclusion provides links to at least four more BBC Technology News articles warning on cyber security issues including technology privacy invasion and cheap spyware dangers.


Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

22 February 2015

BREAKING NEWS: "Citizenfour" Best Documentary Academy Award Winner Celebrating Courage Of Edward J. Snowden In Exposing The Disgraceful Unconstitutional Grossly Unlawful Universal Domestic Spying Of The Criminal National Security Agency (NSA) Continuing Criminal Surveillance To This Day

       Sunday, 22 February 2015, HOLLYWOOD, CA - The entire editorial board of the Ninth Amendment congratulates all who participated in the making of the documentary film "Citizenfour" which moments ago won the 2015 Best Documentary Film Academy Award. The makers of the film expressed their hope that the award will help spread the word of the courage and persistence of Edward J. Snowden and those who follow him in exposing the grossly unlawful unconstitutional criminal actions of the disgraceful universal domestic spying conspiracy known as the National Security Agency (NSA) and other "national security" agencies whose participating members need look no further than their mirrors to find the true traitors to the values enshrined in the United States Constitution.              
       None yet have been prosecuted for the crimes (in which President Obama sadly has become complicit) committed in their criminal conspiracy continuing at least from the time of the "Trailblazer Project" universal cellphone database for nearly fifteen years through several other illegal unconstitutional surveillance programs notably such as PRISM with data collection for the NSA performed by the FBI Data Intercept Technology Unit (DITU) and participation of technology companies including Microsoft in 2007, Yahoo! in 2008, Google in 2009, Facebook in 2009, Paltalk in 2009, YouTube in 2010, AOL in 2011, Skype in 2011 and Apple in 2012 (according to the Wikepedia article linked to below) with such illegal surveillance and data collection continuing to this day.
       "We kill people based on metadata." Former NSA Director General William C. Hayden.


Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

21 February 2015

(UPDATED 25 FEBRUARY 2015) N.S.A. And Partner In Crime British Spook Agency GCHQ Under Investigation For Stealing Proprietary Encryption Data From Chip Maker Gemalto World's Largest SIM Card Maker So As To Snoop On All Mobile Phones Worldwide - UPDATE: Gemalto Preliminary Investigation Concludes N.S.A. And GCHQ Most Likely Did Hack With Very Limited Success

       Saturday, 21 February 2015, LONDON - The New York Times today reports that the French-Dutch chip maker Gemalto yesterday announced that it was commencing an investigation into a report that (in what would have seemed a shocking impossibility a decade ago but today seems just yet another rank stinking truth about the once allegedly law-abiding N.S.A. and its Brit spook GCHQ partner in crime) hacked into the chip maker and stole the encryption codes used by the world's largest SIM card maker potentially enabling them to snoop on worldwide mobile phone communications. The information reportedly first appeared publicly on the website The Intercept with link in the New York Times article below based on information from documents from 2010 made public by former N.S.A. contractor Edward J. Snowden.
       The N.S.A. and GCHQ are in recent times emerging as two of the world's largest criminal organizations operating under cover of apparent government protection paid by readers' hard-earned tax dollars to spy on them having previously reportedly tapped into the private phones of friendly world leaders and now under investigation for stealing encryption codes enabling them to snoop in on billions of voice and data transmissions including with the use of stolen codes for so-called "smart chips" embedded in persons' passports and credit cards with proprietary information stolen from private companies like common thieves allowing them to bypass cumbersome legal requirements imposed by having to deal with government officials and/or telecommunications providers.
       Hardly surprisingly Gemalto announced it was launching its own investigation without seeking assistance of government law enforcement as it watched its shares plummet 7.5 per cent on Friday. Anne Jelema, chief of the World Wide Web Foundation, described as a "nonprofit that campaigns for Internet freedom", reportedly said '[t]hat this is another worrying sign that these agencies think they are above the law." The Ninth Amendment could hardly have thought of a weaker summation if it tried. At this point she might consider campaigning for a bit more than internet freedom if she cares to comment on criminal activities such as those alleged here of the N.S.A. and GCHQ.
       Reportedly a GCHQ spokesman said that he could not comment on criminal activities in which the GCHQ currently was participating. At the N.S.A. "no one was available for comment" as all staff presumably were busy illegally snooping on global communications, practicing their pledges to uphold the Constitution as they personally misunderstood it, or going home early to leave teenage contractors to intimately monitor global events for the weekend.
       UPDATE: Wednesday, 25 February 2015, PARIS - Gemalto the world's largest SIM card maker today announced the results of its preliminary investigation into reports first announced last week by the website The Intercept (link in both New York Times articles linked to below) that the N.S.A. and GCHQ may have hacked into the world's largest SIM card maker and stolen SIM card and "smart chip" encryption codes. Gemalto found that the two spy agencies most likely did hack into Gemalto's networks attempting to gain access to worldwide mobile phone communications for two years beginning in 2010 but would reportedly have met with limited success due to additional safeguards put in place by Gemalto by that time.
       The Ninth Amendment below now links to a second New York Times article dated today which provides significantly more detail on Gemalto's announcement. Of particular interest is that the announcement seems to intimate that as the spy agencies also most likely attempted attacks on its communications networks in 2010 that their hacking probably extended as far as sending out fake "Gemalto employee" emails to its customers which include the world's largest cellphone carriers which fake emails contained malware.
       In any case what limited SIM card encryption codes the N.S.A. and GCHQ probably stole reportedly would have been for more vulnerable less sophisticated 2G SIM cards which as luck would have it in 2010 were mainly only still used in a few "hot spots" of particular interest to the spy agencies including Afghanistan, Iran and Yemen.



Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

Google Refuses Data Privacy Breach Cure Of 2012 "Policy Changes" Assailed By European Union: Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, France, The Netherlands And Spain Data Protection Authority To Hit Google With Millions In Fines

       Saturday, 21 February 2015, ROME - In the wake of a flood of investigations and complaints by European nations triggered by Google's 2012 unilateral announcement of its "Privacy Policy Changes" many of which European Data Privacy Actions are cataloged in the second linked-to PC World article of the two below perhaps the most noteworthy to date is Google's agreement announced yesterday to among other things allow the Italian Data Privacy authority to conduct on-site visits of Google United States facilities to insure compliance with an agreement to stop aggregating privacy data on Italian citizens from various Google services even including a record of all "searches" performed so as to assemble essentially "mega-profiles" of all persons making use of Google services. The history and details of this agreement are set out in the first linked-to PC World article of the two below.
       Meanwhile the second linked-to article below details a Dutch demand that Google cease the same practices drawing fire from at least six European Union (EU) nations described essentially as without express and knowing consent combining personal privacy data from users including content of searches, location data and videos watched. Google has "tried the patience" of Dutch authorities since 2012 and faces a $19 million fine if it does not resolve the privacy data violations against Dutch citizens within a week. PC World reports that Google already in the past two months has been fined about $1,250,000 combined by the French privacy authority and the Spanish data protection authority.
       A Google spokesman expressed "disappointment" with the actions of the EU nations as he claimed Google had already made changes to its 2012 "Privacy Policy" even though they apparently still are in violation of several nations' laws. Laws generally of course are enacted by due process as set forth in the establishing enforceable framework of a country and as such are enforceable by things like fines, imprisonment and death. Policies on the other hand although seemingly willingly misunderstood by many American companies in particular are usually self-serving words written on paper supported by no enforceable authority and subject to indiscriminate change by the usual American company nearly always in its favor as part of a larger intentional misconception that its policies are something more than empty words unenforceable against any outside parties. Companies often attempt to circumvent this deficiency by "incorporating by reference" policies and the like into larger incomprehensible unilateral adhesion contracts.
       Large fines by European regulators against massive American "metadata hoarding" companies such as Google and Facebook (with headquarters in Ireland) for practices worthy of spy agencies such as the CIA and NSA are nothing new including for example Facebook's infamous use of "facial recognition" technology of all persons in public places along with Google's apparent efforts to photograph and catalog every person's home and curtilage on the entire planet (better for targeted advertising, right?). It seems fair to say that United States citizens among established civilized Western nations now are afforded by far the least privacy protection by their State which in fact is especially true given the public ties between the CIA with business ventures in Google and the NSA's witless (excuse us, "unwitting" in perjurious testimony before Congress) indiscriminate collection of metadata on all American citizens (See earlier Ninth Amendment post entitled "We Kill Based On Metadata").
       In the uninformed lay opinion of the Ninth Amendment based on nothing but delusion the activities of the CIA and NSA and any other executive branch agencies in this regard are Unconstitutional in plain violation of the Bill of Rights and therefore lack all legitimacy removing any legitimate State power from them and rendering them nothing more than organized criminal enterprises. As for the so-called "private" entities engaged in similar activities either routinely or on demand supplying private citizens' information without a legitimate court order they are in our opinion informed only by delusion co-conspirators equally guilty by knowing complicity and assistance in the commission of criminal activities anathema to the principles established in the United States Constitution.



Copyright 2015 Martin P. All World Rights Expressly Reserved

20 February 2015

"Be Very, Very Afraid" Krugman Blasts Right-Wing G.O.P. Economists As Charlatans Liars Cranks And Outright Morons Advising Next Filthy Wave Of Pathetic Idiot Republican 2016 Presidential "Candidates" Tools Of Richest 1%

       20 February 2015, NATIONAL NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER, BETHESDA, MD - The entire editorial board of the Ninth Amendment especially wishes to express our gratitude to all dedicated readers and visitors of good intention. The editorial board without further comment recommends the below-linked opinion piece "Cranking Up for 2016" by Economics Nobel Prize Winner New York Times Columnist Professor Paul Krugman published today.


Copyright 2015 Martin P. And Liitle L All World Rights Expressly Reserved